Australia

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Payments

Overview

The top online payment methods in Australia are credit cards (51%), Paypal (25%), BPay (11%), direct deposit (6%) and direct debit (3%). As globalization and ecommerce become intertwined, credit cards and Paypal become increasingly important as payment methods in Australia due to their being the only widely available payment option for cross border purchases.BPay is an electronic bill payment system limited domestically within Australia as it is owned by Australia’s four major banks and is designed for domestic bill payment. Direct debit and credit payments are likewise not able to be used in paying for global purchases. [1]

Domestic and Preferred Card Schemes

Preferred Payment Methods: American Express - 13%, Master Card - 36%, Visa - 45%, PayPal - 85%, Direct Debit - 19

Credit Cards These have different transaction costs associated with them, but are a popular option due to the widespread use of credit cards in Australia. New services have also increased security, such as MasterCard SecureCode and Verified by Visa, which requires a customer to have their mobile phone with them to receive a security code when they make a transaction. Retailers will likely need a Merchant account and payment gateway to accept credit card payments.[2]

Online Payment Services Online retailers have two main options when it comes to online payment service providers in Australia. These providers allow customers to pay by credit card or electronic transfer without the merchant having access to their credit card or bank account details. Payment gateways: these link an online store with a merchant account, allowing the immediate transfer of funds. Merchants have more control with this method, as they own both the gateway and the merchant account. Third party processors: these don’t require sellers to have a merchant account. They are often cheaper and easier to set up in the short term, but they don’t settle funds daily and their fees may be higher.

• PayPal 5.5 million Australian account holders, 110,000 merchants

• eWay over 15,000 merchants globally

• Stripe

• Braintree

• Paymate

Some of the main payment gateways, which are accepted by most Australian merchant accounts, include:

• Merchant Warrior

• IP Payments

• SecurePay

• SCNet

• Fat Zebra

Australian banks also offer their own payment gateway services. One of the main ones of these is MIGS (MasterCard Internet Gateway Service) which also powers the gateways of around seventy banks in the Asia-Pacific region as a white label service. These bank owned gateways do not always offer the same level of support as third party gateways. [3]

Alternative Payment Methods

Debit Cards These use the same payment processing technology as credit cards, but access funds directly from the card holder’s transaction account. Merchants able to accept Australian credit cards can generally accept debit cards without making any changes. Recent years have also seen a shift from credit cards to debit cards. In August 2004, 49% of card purchases were via debit card and 51% were via credit card. By August 2014, 66% were via debit card and 34% via credit card.[4]

Debit deposit & Direct debit Australians are one of the world’s biggest users of online banking, including mobile banking. Over 80% of Australians use online banking to pay bills, buy goods and services with their phones (ACMA, 2013). Direct deposit, ie transferring money directly into a merchant’s account, is another widely used payment method for goods and services online, however on a much smaller scale than credit cards and PayPal.[5]

Australian consumers are also well advanced as adopters on online/mobile banking and this has led to the increased use of Bank-to-bank and overlay payment services (OLAP). However, care should be taken when selecting some of these services as many don’t offer a refund service which might lead to a dis-jointed customer service proposition. Penetration is still relatively small, but is growing. [6]

Other Payment Methods

Electronic bill payment services These allow large organizations to offer bill payments over the internet. The major players are BPay and Australia Post Bill Pay.

Cheques and Money Orders These have become increasingly rare, but are offered by some merchants.[7]

Digital Invoicing

Australian industry and government could be running on a unified, national standard for electronic invoicing within a year after a joint private-public council approved the final framework for implementation. The standard is a result of a push by the Australian Tax Office, which jumped on similar efforts by the retail industry last year and led the creation of the Digital Business Council. The council is an industry-run joint body charged with building a national framework of standards for the processing of electronic invoices. It followed the tax office’s commissioning of a report [pdf] into e-invoicing last year which found a unified approach could save the economy as much as $10 billion per year, and up to $3 billion for government agencies alone. But much needed to be done to boost the current rate of e-invoicing adoption in Australia from between 10 and 15 percent.[8]

Customer Experience

As always, the payment methods chosen should reflect the channel and customer proposition. More importantly, the method should also work from the customer’s perspective. For example, does the mobile enabled payment method offered reflect the types of devices a customer would use and if bank-to-bank payments, or an overlay payments service is used, can the merchant refund the customer using the same mechanism? If not, what would the customer proposition look like?[9]

Payments Regulation

GST (Goods & Service Tax): Australia’s GST is a 10% tax on goods and services, equivalent to the UK’s VAT (Value Added Tax). For international purchases, goods worth less than AUD $1,000 are currently exempt. However many local Australian retailers have been lobbying the government to lower this threshold to bring international prices in line with local prices.

Interchange fees: Interchange fees have been capped by the RBA since 2003, but the Bank is reviewing them. Currently, there can be a difference of up to 180 basis points in the cost of the same card presented at different merchants, and merchants often have no way of determining which are the high-cost cards. The RBA wants to make it easier for merchants to respond to differing card costs.

Merchant service fees: Large merchants with more market power are often able to secure lower interchange fees and merchant service fees than smaller merchants, reducing smaller retailers’ ability to compete. The Australian Retailers Association says that by capping fees, it could ensure retailers pay similar merchant service fees, no matter their strategic importance to scheme providers.

Payment card surcharges: In 2002 the RBA allowed surcharging on card payments, but it remains unpopular with consumers. The Bank indicated in 2015 that it may step in to limit “excessive” surcharges and to prevent certain surcharges, for example on low value debit card transactions.

Merchants that don’t wish to use a payment gateway will need to purchase and register an SSL certificate, obtain a unique IP, and will usually be required to undergo PCI (Payment Card Industry) compliance, which audits your network security systems and methods of collection and storage of credit card information.[10]

Local entities

With no requirements to set up a local entity, a card-dominated payment culture, and a population already used to buying from international businesses, Australia represents a relatively easy market to enter for global businesses. [11]

Mobile payments

When it comes to mobile transactions, Australians trust their banks above all (73%) followed by financial institutions such as Visa and MasterCard (26%) and money transfer services such as PayPal and Western Union. [12]

Logistics

Rather than ‘where’ a product comes from, Australians are far more interested in how quickly it can reach them and therefore consideration needs to be given to the volume of transactions being imported into Australia and the channels used.As a non-Australian e-retailer reaches critical mass and transactions increase, the supply chain model used will need to adapt to a physical distribution presence. A typical supplier will start off sending individual products.

Traditionally most individual deliveries into Australia will have been made through the postal routes with Aus Post as the local delivery link providing:

• Economy – 3 to 5 day delivery with ‘signature on delivery’ and ‘safe place’ options

• Express – next day delivery to about 80% of the country and with the option of additional on line tracking (Premium)

• Collection at the Post Office

• Or by using services provided by the big global integrators (TNT, UPS, DHL, Fed Ex) mainly providing Express services, some with time slot delivery options.

However neither the slower postal route nor the more expensive ‘courier’ route were ideally suited to the needs of cross-border ecommerce.Over the past few years we have seen the emergence of direct access solutions where orders from many retailers are consolidated in the country of origin, flown in bulk to the country of destination (customs cleared on the way if necessary) and handed to a local deliver partner for the ‘final leg’. These services are tracked all the way and are faster than post and cheaper that express. In addition, Australian Customs allows for purchasers and importers to ‘self-declare’ cross-border transactions and service providers are increasingly providing services that enable declarations to be made whilst goods are in transit; reducing processing time, paperwork and improving the competitiveness of cross-border merchants.wnDirect is the forerunner of these services and shipped almost 50,000 individual parcels to Australia in August 2015 alone, on behalf of UK e-retailers. This type of solution provides an ideal bridge to the point where a retailer may eventually move to importing container loads of product with a view to utilising a local 3PL solution, finally setting up their own logistics, warehouse, and distribution solution. A larger importer may take the option of making application for their own licensed depot, warehousing and customs broker facilities located in Australia. [13]

Retailers offering fast and inexpensive shipping can very quickly gain themselves a competitive advantage as Australians are used to ‘waiting’ even for domestic purchases. The promise of delivery within a specified time frame is not enough; online shoppers in Australia also expect an element of choice when it comes to delivery options. In fact research suggests that, despite the delivery distances involved in this huge country, 94% of Australian e-shoppers expect to have various delivery options. Rapidly catching up with the demanding approach seen in other countries, Australian online shoppers no longer simply expect their packages to get to them within a decent period of time, they want more. Once orders arrive ‘in country’ it is worth considering where the demand is and what mechanisms will be required to service this custom. In 2014, the National Australia Bank reported a detailed breakdown of which regions made up the online shopping population. [14]

Infrastructure

For such a vast country, Australia boasts a surprisingly world class logistics and infrastructure system. Its LPI score is ranked 19th in the world by the World Bank. Situated a great distance from its international markets, Australia has built a major multimodal transport system (across water, land and air) to facilitate international trade. There are 25 major ports in Australia linked by road, air, rail, and coastal shipping. This set up makes it easy to access the market with cross border goods.[15]

Returns

Customs advises consumers “If you have physically received the goods and paid Customs duty on goods imported but they were returned them to the supplier because, “I changed my mind”, “they don’t fit”, or “I don’t like them” then a refund on duty is not available under current legislation. However, as an alternative option if you export the imported goods, subject to certain conditions, you may be entitled to a drawback of the duty paid.” [16]

Australian consumers expect to be able to return unwanted goods and receive a replacement or credit with the minimum of fuss or delay. [17]

Import Duties

Australia has a rigorous set of customs clearance regulations and procedural requirements that e-retailers should educate themselves on prior to commencing trade. It is recommended that e-retailers seek professional advice from Licensed Customs Brokers or Freight forwarders especially for those transactions over $1000 AUD. Within Australia customs clearance is strictly exercised and occurs before goods are released to the purchaser/ owner from clearance centres. As Australia is surrounded by water without physical borders with other countries, all goods are imported either by Sea, or Air Cargo or International Post (the carrier of which is Australia Post within Australia). Therefore Ports, Airports are the entry points for Cargo (the majority of which are in Metropolitan Cities) into Australia with clearance centres (licensed depots and warehouses being situated around these areas). Generally speaking all declarations, permits, taxes and duties are the responsibility of the owner/ purchaser of the goods and must be provided and paid prior to goods being released. There is some variation depending on the value of the goods whether they are a B2C or B2B arrangement.

B2B and B2C Goods under $1,000 AUD The majority of overseas internet transactions will be B2C, under $1000 AUD and will be delivered by International Post (the carrier being Australia Post within Australia). A customs broker would not be required. These goods may be imported free of customs duties and taxes (except Alcohol and Tobacco) with only a parcel declaration needing to be completed. Australia Post will deliver the goods straight to the consumer. A permit is required for restricted goods. For goods being delivered via air freight or sea freight, the system is slightly more complex with the same rules applying except these goods must be reported to Customs and Border Protection on a Self-Assessed Clearance (SAC) declaration. SAC declarations are usually made on the consumers behalf by the freight forwarder handling the consignment but sometimes the supplier may be required to make a SAC declaration. SAC declarations can only be made electronically to Customs and Border Protection via the Integrated Cargo System (ICS). The owner may need to use a licensed customs broker or service provider to make SAC declarations on a fee for service basis. [18]

B2B and B2C Goods under $1,000 AUD For goods over the value of a $1,000 the customs clearance system becomes slightly more complex again. These goods will require an Import Declaration to be lodged electronically via the Customs Integrated Cargo System (ICS). Duty and/or taxes will more than likely be payable. The responsibility for this sits with the owner of the goods. This could be the a) consumer purchasing over the internet from the supplier (B2C); b) One business from another ( B2B); or c) one business importing containers into Australia to distribute through a physical presence i.e. either online or via a retail outlet.

According to Customs law, an owner of imported goods may be the importer, someone who holds themselves out to be the owner, someone who has a beneficial interest in the goods or someone who has control of the goods. Note that there is no requirement for companies or individuals to hold an import license, however, they must be able to have a good understanding of Australian Customs law, permits, prohibited goods, product labelling requirements and information on tariffs and hence duties and taxes available as well access to the ICS system. Many choose to have a licensed customs broker facilitate the Import Declaration and assist in dealing with all obligations with the importation of their goods. Brokers provide their services on a fee for service basis. Employees may also act on an owner’s behalf to make import declarations provided they are not also an employee of another entity.

When goods are imported they will be assessed for customs duty and Goods and Services Tax (GST) of 10%. The rate of duty depends on the nature of the goods and is determined by the Tariff classification of the goods (Customs Tariff Act 1995). The duty, if any, is calculated on the customs value of the goods. The customs value is usually the price paid and converted to Australian dollars. Customs and Border Protection may require the owner to produce receipts or invoices etc. to substantiate that the customs value claimed applies. GST (at a rate of 10%) is also calculated on the Value of the Taxable Importation known as the VoTI.

The VoTi is the sum of: • the customs value • any duty payable; and • The amount paid or payable to transport the goods to Australia and to insure the goods for that transport.

To obtain a Tariff Classification and an exact duty rate, refer to the Customs Tariff.[19]

Typical process with financial and logistics considerations involves:

• Check if goods are prohibited, or require a permit for completion and lodgement.

• Assess value of goods under or over $1000 AUD.

• Consider use of a licenced customs broker, and logistics carrier (Air, Sea or International Post).

• Assess tariffs and hence duties payable and other taxes (GST, Wine Equalisation, Luxury Car, Other).

• Engage Carrier / Logistics Solution.

• Legal confirmation of goods for entry into the country: Import Declaration completed by importer submitted via ICS system; SAC declaration or Australia Post Declaration.

• Confirmation of product prices: Calculation can be completed by Importer, confirmed via ICS system when goods arrived in Australia and cleared. Duties and Taxes are now payable.

• Consider warehousing, storage and insurance fees. Customs Clearance System

The customs clearance system largely relies on purchasers and importers self-declaring and regulating incorporating the paperwork and declaration process. Most goods are held up in the clearance process due to the assessment of value (over $1000 AUD), the goods being of a prohibited nature, incomplete paperwork or payment. It takes up to five working days from receipt of completed documents for Customs to process the import declaration. It may also take up to three working days to process any payments made re duties and taxes with goods being held in a depot or warehouse. By Law this may happen indefinitely until payment is received, however the individual bonded warehouse or depot may have their own regulations, restrictions and fees for goods held. There are a number of service providers, such as wnDirect, that provide a ‘wheels-up’ clearance system whereby the required records are completed whilst the goods are in transit; speeding up the processing time on landing.[20]

Marketing

According to the 2014 AIMIA Australian Retail Research Report, online retail remains only a small part of the overall retail landscape, accounting for 5% of global retail spending in 2013. However, as more of the global population embraces online shopping, brands and marketing have been investing more heavily here within the last 10 years. In 2014, according to Sitecore’s Emerging Trends report, 80% of Australian marketers have planned to increase their online activities in 2015. However, marketing spend on offline activities still outstrips spend by more than 50%.

Like many other international territories, Australian consumers are multi-channel and the priority of marketing effort depends on the business structure. In the e-commerce space it’s important to have a balance of online and offline channels present in your marketing mix. The biggest focus, and what marketers are paying attention to, is the customer driving marketing campaigns. Without putting the target audience at the centre of every execution, the campaign will be unsuccessful. In the Sitecore Emerging trends report it is clear that social media integration has increased in relevance, with 68% of marketers focussing on this area, rather than 57% in the previous year. This only reflects hard budget spends - much of a strong online marketing strategy relies on content marketing, and Australian marketers are putting a heavy focus on this area currently.

Australian consumers respond to many of the same marketing cues as their international cousins. In response, local retailers are targeting their investment to maximise revenues. However, it should be noted that popularity doesn’t always mean that the channel is worth paying for advertising. In some situations, organic is the most effective option but this will differ across brands. Across 3 core marketing channels 68% of marketers are focusing on Social media (up 11% from the previous year), most retailers (90%) are using email and 67% are using campaign management. In revenue terms, 50% of online transactions are now carried out via mobile devices so there is a growing focus on a mobile optimised user experience. This growth in mobile is also impacting expectations around how transactions take place. Mobile payment is a massive growth area in the Australian market as consumers are growing more accustomed to the reduced friction that this payment mechanism offers. It was projected in Australia’s CIO publication that mobile payments will grow by 60.8% come the end of 2015. This is due to many reasons, but the advances in Apple payments have paved the way and been readily embraced by a large portion of the public.

A major shift amongst Australian marketers has been a focus on personalisation, particularly in the B2C space, for Australian marketers. Of the marketers questioned in the Sitecore Emerging Trends report, 26% saw personalisation as the greatest growth opportunity for the 12 months following (2015/2016). As consumer expectations have been steadily increasing, particularly around the customization of content, marketers are now realising this is a huge growth area.

Social media, email marketing and Search Engine Marketing are priority areas for Australian retailers. The key search engine is Google although there are a number of local alternatives such as Ansearch. Personalisation is an important development and consumers are expecting increased levels of localisation from international traders. [21]

Shoppers

As a country, Australian shoppers would be relatively more inclined to spend more online if they weren’t required to register on the site beforehand. Whereas light shoppers are likely to increase their purchases if their personal details were guaranteed to be better protected, heavier shoppers are more attracted by a greater variety of payment methods. Two-thirds (67%) of Australian shoppers are likely to switch off and drop out if they are presented with unexpected or hidden costs. [22]

Social Media

Social media is used, by varying degrees, for content consumption from friends, family, businesses, news organisations and brands. The difference between Australia and other markets is that local expectations for customised content are quite high. You need to understand your consumer’s interests before marketing to them on social media by paid channels. Social media does have a high level of engagement but growth appears to have flattened off. However, Facebook has 13.6 million users and appears to be increasing its user base despite the overall number of social users declining marginally. It was quoted in the Power Retail 2014 social commerce report that “2014 looks to be the year of social commerce, with companies finally able to generate a significant percentage of revenue.” This rings true in particularly on Facebook over all channels. 97% of all social networking users are connected via Facebook. The most important thing to remember, as confirmed in the report, is that investing in social spend for growth is important at the beginning, but it needs to be backed with a solid content strategy. If your content is not appropriate or shareable, you’re not going to have engagement. [23]

Major shopping categories

A wide range of categories are purchased by online shoppers in Australia, with clothes (27%) and music downloads (27%) being the most popular. Credit cards are the most popular type of payment used by online shoppers, with 82% using this method in last 6 months. Both debit cards (31%) and PayPal (30%) are also popular. Younger shoppers, most notably in their late twenties, are the highest spenders in Australia and have a relative desire to purchase either groceries or books online. Such items are bought either by using a credit card or with PayPal. [24]

Major retail holidays

January 2 - New Year's Day, October 1 - Buy Nothing New, January - Back to School, October 2 - Labour Day, January 26 - Australia Day, October 31 - Halloween, February 14 - Valentine's Day, November - Black Friday, March 15 - World Consumer Rights Day, November - Buy Nothing Day, March - Cash Mob Day, November - Sofa Sunday, November - Cyber Monday, December - Green Monday, December 15 - Free Shipping Day, April 25 - Anzac Day, May - Mother's Day, June 19 - Winter Sale, December 26 - Boxing Day, Boxing Day, Cyber Boxing Day, September - Father's Day[25]

Legal / Regulatory

Overview

There are very few concerns in Australia regarding issues of legal and regulatory transparency. Traditionally in terms of investment, Australia has always been a nation which not only welcomes foreign investment but actively encourages it, with its liberal and transparent screening process for incoming investment proposals. It is very rare that the Government will even consider blocking proposals, and this is only the case where the future investment has been determined by the Foreign Investment Review Board (FIRB) to be contrary to the national interest. However, some restrictions may apply in sectors considered to be ‘sensitive’, such as in residential real estate, banking, media, telecommunications, shipping, civil aviation and airports.[26]

Customs and Duties

Australia has a rigorous set of customs clearance regulations and procedural requirements that e-retailers should educate themselves on prior to commencing trade. It is recommended that e-retailers seek professional advice from Licensed Customs Brokers or Freight forwarders especially for those transactions over $1000 AUD.

Within Australia customs clearance is strictly exercised and occurs before goods are released to the purchaser/owner from clearance centres. As Australia is surrounded by water without physical borders with other countries, all goods are imported either by Sea, or Air Cargo or International Post (the carrier of which is Australia Post within Australia). Therefore Ports, Airports are the entry points for Cargo (the majority of which are in Metropolitan Cities) into Australia with clearance centres (licensed depots and warehouses being situated around these areas).

Generally speaking all declarations, permits, taxes and duties are the responsibility of the owner/ purchaser of the goods and must be provided and paid prior to goods being released. There is some variation depending on the value of the goods whether they are a B2C or B2B arrangement. [27]

The Value of Goods

E-Retailers should note that the process for customs clearance on goods purchased via B2B or B2C channels varies depending on value; with the threshold being $1,000AUD.

B2B and B2C Goods under $1000 AUD

The majority of overseas internet transactions will be B2C, under $1000 AUD and will be delivered by International Post (the carrier being Australia Post within Australia). A customs broker would not be required. These goods may be imported free of customs duties and taxes (except Alcohol and Tobacco) with only a parcel declaration needing to be completed. Australia Post will deliver the goods straight to the consumer. A permit is required for restricted goods. [28]

For goods being delivered via air freight or sea freight, the system is slightly more complex with the same rules applying except these goods must be reported to Customs and Border Protection on a Self-Assessed Clearance (SAC) declaration. SAC declarations are usually made on the consumers behalf by the freight forwarder handling the consignment but sometimes the supplier may be required to make a SAC declaration. SAC declarations can only be made electronically to Customs and Border Protection via the Integrated Cargo System (ICS). The owner may need to use a licensed customs broker or service provider to make SAC declarations on a fee for service basis. B2C and B2B Goods over $1000 AUD. [29]

Goods over the value of a $1,000

These goods will require an Import Declaration to be lodged electronically via the Customs Integrated Cargo System (ICS). Duty and/or taxes will more than likely be payable. The responsibility for this sits with the owner of the goods. This could be the a) consumer purchasing over the internet from the supplier (B2C); b) One business from another ( B2B); or c) one business importing containers into Australia to distribute through a physical presence i.e. either online or via a retail outlet. [30]

According to Customs law, an owner of imported goods may be the importer, someone who holds themselves out to be the owner, someone who has a beneficial interest in the goods or someone who has control of the goods. Note that there is no requirement for companies or individuals to hold an import license, however, they must be able to have a good understanding of Australian Customs law, permits, prohibited goods, product labelling requirements and information on tariffs and hence duties and taxes available as well access to the ICS system. Many choose to have a licensed customs broker facilitate the Import Declaration and assist in dealing with all obligations with the importation of their goods. Brokers provide their services on a fee for service basis. Employees may also act on an owner’s behalf to make import declarations provided they are not also an employee of another entity. [31]

When goods are imported they will be assessed for customs duty and Goods and Services Tax (GST) of 10%. The rate of duty depends on the nature of the goods and is determined by the Tariff classification of the goods (Customs Tariff Act 1995). The duty, if any, is calculated on the customs value of the goods. The customs value is usually the price paid and converted to Australian dollars. Customs and Border Protection may require the owner to produce receipts or invoices etc. to substantiate that the customs value claimed applies. GST (at a rate of 10%) is also calculated on the Value of the Taxable Importation known as the VoTI. The VoTi is the sum of: • the customs value • any duty payable; and • The amount paid or payable to transport the goods to Australia and to insure the goods for that transport. To obtain a Tariff Classification and an exact duty rate, refer to the Customs Tariff.[32]

Technology

There are 21 Million Internet users out of a population of nearly 24 Million, a penetration level of over 80%. There were 12,691,000 internet subscribers in Australia at the end of December 2014. This is an increase of 2% from the end of December 2013. A year later, 99% of internet connections were broadband. [33]

Security

The relevant privacy and data protection legislation is the Privacy Act 1988 (Cth). This Act is still current and relevant, although was amended when the Privacy Amendment (Enhancing Privacy Protection) Act 2012 (Cth) came into force in 2014.[34]

Mobile appetite

Smartphone penetration has doubled since 2010, reaching 72 percent of total mobile users and of these, 71% percent access the internet on their smartphones on a daily basis, up from 56 percent in 20141. In common with other developed economies, device ownership is also on the increase with 53% of Australians owning 3 electronic devices; a smartphone, tablet and computer. This is an increase on the 28% of the previous year2. 56% of Australians own a tablet device up, 12% over the past 12 months and resulting in a major requirement for website owners being able to serve their offering in a device responsive manner3. As would be expected, 18 to 45 year olds are most likely to have tablets although older age groups are catching up, even if they don’t have smartphones2. Smartphones, have reached household penetration levels of 287% in 20144. This level of availability means that Australians are expected to increase their spending on mobile devices by 43 per cent in 2014 to $8.8 billion, according to research released by PayPal and Ipsos. [35]

Mobile is playing an increasingly important role with consumers accessing digital services. In 2013 there were over 7.5 million users and 62% of Australian mobile owners are internet connected smartphone users. In 2014, 55% of mobile web users used a mobile device as their favoured means of going online, often instead of using a laptop/desk top. This uptake represented an increase of 15% over the previous year. What is also becoming clear is that using these devices makes access to the internet more available or ‘omni-present’; 53% of Australian smartphone users access the internet more than 5 times a day – with 20% going online 15 times a day or more. [36]

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